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Afghanistan

2020-11-20 17:12:13        来源:

Afghanistan is a landlocked country in west-central Asia, with Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north, Iran to the west, Pakistan to the south and the east, and China to the northeast long a narrow strip. It has a continental climate with droughts much of the year, cold winters and scorching-hot summers. Average annual precipitation for the whole country is only around 240 mm.

Daoud Khan was involved in a coup to overthrow the Zahir Dynasty, in 1973, and the king, Zahir Shah, went into exile. The Republic of Afghanistan was founded just after that and, in April 1978, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) staged another coup and changed the country‘s name to the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. The following year, the Soviet Union sent troops to Afghanistan and stayed as an occupier until 1989. After the Soviets withdrew, a civil war ensued, with different sects fighting against each other. The government of Najibullah collapsed in April 1992, and guerrillas took power and changed the country’s name again to the Islamic State of Afghanistan, with Burhanuddin Rabbani as the president. In September 1996, the Taliban, a group of Muslim militants, occupied Kabul, the capital, and managed to seize control of at least 90 percent of the country. Rabbani went into exile abroad, while other guerrilla groups took Mazar-i-Sharif as their political center, establishing the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. On Oct 27, 1997, the Taliban changed the country’s name to the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

Afghans are heavily influenced by Islam in their customs and show piety and a commitment to Islam, strictly following canonical law. They prostrate themselves in the direction of Mecca daily and even police officers on duty and children playing are expected to kneel down and pray. On Friday, they have a Jumuah (Arabic for “gathering”), a congregational prayer.

Afghans celebrate two important religious festivals annually, the Breaking the Fast and Kurban (meaning “sacrifice”), which is celebrated in a grand manner. The Kurban Festival is also called “Festival of Sacrifice”. For this festival, Muslims cleanse themselves, pray and slaughter a sheep, camel, or cow and invite guests or give them a gift to honor their friendship. During the feast of Ramadan (breaking the fast), restaurants, tea houses and stores, in town and country, close and, during the daytime, people refrain from consuming food, then at night hang up bright lights and share their food and drink.


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